Why export is important to the indian economy

There is an imperative necessity to promote export in Indian economy. The following arguments can be advanced to justify the need for export promotion:

1) To Earn Foreign Exchange

Every country in the world is trying to earn a share in the global trade. This is due to the lowering of trade barriers since the inception of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), increased import bills, and increased global competition in the domestic market. Also, most developing countries row heavily from financial institutions like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other sources to finance their developmental activities and reduce the balance of payment deficits. It is therefore imperative that the import bills as well as foreign loans be paid back in foreign exchange. In order to achieve this, earning foreign exchange through various export activities is the need of the hour.

2) To Motivate Organisations to Export:

In order to motivate organisations to export and earn precious foreign exchange, governments offer certain incentives. These incentives help reduce the tax burden of the exporters and also achieve a competitive price- edge for their products in foreign markets. However, being a member of WTO, each country has to ensure that the incentives offered by its government do not give an unfair advantage to the exporters. Thus, no country is to give special trading advantages to another or to discriminate against its all nations stand on an equal basis and share the benefits of any move towards lower trade barriers (branch). Also, all export incentives have to comply with WTO norms and should be in line with its various principles.

3) To Promote Interests of Indian Exporters and Keeping Commitment of WTO:

In India, the framework of export incentives in the form of duty exemption and remission schemes has been devised keeping in mind the interests of exporters as well as the commitments India has made to WTO.

The Duty Exemption Scheme helps exporters import duty-free inputs required for manufacturing export products. The Duty Remission Schemes enable post-exports replenishment/remission of duty on inputs.

4) To Import Capital Goods:

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In addition to this, the Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) scheme enables exporters to import capital goods at concessional rate of duty and suitable export obligation.

5) To Reduce Bureaucratic Hurdles:

The incentives detailed above are available to all eligible exporters in India. In addition, the government has launched the very ambitious scheme of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in order to reduce bureaucratic hurdles in importing inputs for exports and exporting finished products from India. These SEZs are modelled on the highly successful Chinese Economic Zones. It is expected that the SEZs will be the engines of growth in international trade for India.

6) To Correct Unfavourable Balance of Trade:

During the period of planning, except two years, all other years have witnessed unfavourable balance of trade. It not only reduced the foreign exchange reserves of India but also made it difficult to achieve plan targets. Successful completion of plans, therefore, calls for turning of unfavourable balance of trade into favourable one which requires increase in exports.

7) To Reduce Foreign Loans:

India has to row large foreign funds to import essential machinery for economic and industrial development. Till March 2009, India had contracted foreign loans amounting to Rs. 11, 42,618 crore. These loans are to be repaid one day. To pay interest and repay the principal amount of these loans, it is necessary that a policy of export promotion be adopted. Foreign exchange earned as a result of larger exports will be utilized for the repayment of foreign loans

8) To Achieve the Objective of Self-Reliance:

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One of the main objectives of Indian Plans is to make the country independent of foreign assistance. To achieve this objective, it is necessary to promote exports. By accelerating exports, large amount of foreign currency can be earned.

9) To Sell Surplus Production:

During the period of planning, new industries have been set-up in India. In order to increase the sale of the products of these industries, their export is to be promoted. It becomes easy to increase exports under export promotion program.

10) To Finance Imports:

Successful execution of the plans necessitates import of machines and other capital goods from abroad. To earn necessary foreign exchange to meet their import bills, it becomes necessary to increase exports.

11) For the Defence:

Essential war equipment’s, weapons, aeroplanes, etc., are imported from advanced countries for our defence. To meet their cost, it is necessary to increase exports.

12) To contribute Economic Development of Country:

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Export promotion in terms of facilities and incentives can benefit the organisation in several ways which are as follows:

  1. When the domestic market is small, foreign market provides opportunities to achieve economies of scale and growth.
  2. The supply of many commodities, as in the case of a number of agricultural products in India, is more than the domestic demand.
  3.  Exports enable certain countries to achieve export-led growth. Fourthly, export markets may help to mitigate the effects of domestic recession.
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  1. A country may need to boost its exports to earn enough foreign exchange to finance its imports and service its foreign debt. It may be noted that many countries are suffering from trade deficit and foreign debt.
  2. Even in the case of countries with trade surplus export promotion may be required to maintain its position against the international competition and the level of domestic economic act

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